by M Pinarci
The term PROTEOMICS was described by Wilkins et al in 1995 to describe the protein complement of genome. Proteome refers to the collection of functional proteins synthesized by a living cell. This plant proteomics is an emerging field in the biological sciences from past few years and may become supportive for the further studies of all the plants whose genome have not yet been sequenced. Even the plant proteomics help in revealing the genetic secrets of plants that have the potentiality to survive in the environment through its physiological adaptation. This has led many plant biologists to discover the hidden potentialities of plants.
The first expressed product of a genome is the transcriptome, that is a collection of RNA molecules derived from protein coding genes, whose biological function is required by a cell at a particular time that under goes translation to give a final product protein that is the proteome that specifies the nature of the biochemical reactions that the cell is able to carry out.
Many of the practical approaches have discovered a way to establish even those proteins have not yet been discovered. After extracting the proteins from many extraction procedures it is known that there is a very poor co- relation between extracted protein and the mRNA from where these have been expressed.
The process that is the post translational modifications helps the proteome to convert the biological information as it is received from the genome into the biochemical capabilities of a cell that’s over all biological properties forms the functional basis of a cell. There is a diversified distribution of plants whole across the geographical area where these plants exist in there different habitat.
The genomes of rice (oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis thaliana are publicly available. By using these as model plants many of the plant genome is been constructed. Attempts were made to characterize the plant proteomes that indirectly helps to construct the genome of a plant.
The use of techniques 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopic analysis has led to the evaluation of different subsets of protein present in multiple tissues and the presence of fundamental pathways at the level of plant tissue. Even the proteomic analysis at the sub cellular level has been now focused.
The proteomes of cell organelles like chloroplast and mitochondria is studied since these are the main regulatory organelle of plants. Even other organelles contribute to the expression as well exploitation of these proteins in cellular, molecular, genetical, and functional and biochemical regulatory level of a plant.
The protein in every cell is expressed in such away that the plant should survive in the existing environment. Since there is a qualitative and quantitative expression of proteins that help the plant to adjust and react with particular environment (example: abiotic stress and the expression of heat shock proteins).
To study each of these proteins there are many difficulties like, the production of secondary metabolites will abstract while extracting the protein of our study. Secondly there is a limited co-relation between genes and the proteins. To the above said obstacle it’s needed to suppress those genes that produce these metabolites and over expression of the other protein through genetic engineering studies.
In today’s research field there is a fantastic technical inputs in plant proteomics research that provide a high quality extraction procedure (protein precipitation) for protein and have provided a possible way to relate 2- dimensional structure of protein to functional attribute of a cell.
There are many advances in recent years that we come across in the study plant proteome:
· Construction of expressed sequenced tags through RFLP and RAPD of a plant, that helps to sequence the genome of other plants.
· To know the genetic diversity of plants.
· To construct a taxonomical classification.
· To know the protein expressed from each organelle of a cell in the plants and their overall impact on physiological responses of a plant
· To know those traits that maintains the genotypic and phenotypic expression of the genes of a plant.
· To establish phylogenetic relation relation of a plant.
There are yet many unraveling plants in nature whose genomes could be sorted out by carrying projects based on plant proteomic research and provides a wonderful field of study.
PAUL CHRISTOU, HARRY KLEE, HANDBOOK OF PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY.
HIMANSHU DUBE, ANIL GROVER, CURRENT INITIATIVES IN PROTEOMICS RESEARCH: THE PLANT PRESPECTIVE.